Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming. Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991, Python has a design philosophy that emphasizes code readability, notably using significant whitespace. It provides constructs that enable clear programming on both small and large scales,In 2018, Van Rossum stepped down as the leader in the language community after 30 years.
Python features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative, functional and procedural, and has a large and comprehensive standard library.
for many operating systems. CPython, the reference implementation of Python, is and has a community-based development model, as do nearly all of Python’s other implementations.
Features and philosophy
Python is a multi-paradigm programming language. Object-oriented programming and structured programming are fully supported, and many of its features support functional programming and aspect-oriented programming . Many other paradigms are supported via extensions, including design by contract, and logic programming.
Python uses dynamic typing, and a combination of reference counting and a cycle-detecting garbage collector for memory management. It also features dynamic name resolution(late binding), which binds method and variable names during program execution.
Python’s design offers some support for functional programming. It has filter(), map(), and reduce() functions; list comprehensions, dictionaries, and sets; and generator Explicit is better than implicit,such as
• Simple is better than complex
• Complex is better than complicated
• Readability counts
Rather than having all of its functionality built into its core, Python was designed to be highly extensible. This compact modularity has made it particularly popular as a means of adding programmable interfaces to existing applications. Van Rossum’s vision of a small core language with a large standard library and easily extensible interpreter stemmed from his frustrations with ABC, which espoused the opposite approach.
Syntax and semantics.
Python is meant to be an easily readable language. Its formatting is visually uncluttered, and it often uses English keywords where other languages use punctuation. Unlike many other languages, it does not use curly brackets to delimit blocks, and semicolons after statements are optional. It has fewer syntactic exceptions and special cases than C or Pascal.
Python uses whitespace indentation, rather than curly brackets or keywords, to delimit blocks. An increase in indentation comes after certain statements; a decrease in indentation signifies the end of the current block. Thus, the program’s visual structure accurately represents the program’s semantic structure.This feature is also sometimes termed the off-side rule.
Methods on objects are functions attached to the object’s class; the syntax
instance.method (argument) is, for normal methods and functions, syntactic sugar for Class.method(instance, argument). Python methods have an explicit self parameter to access instance data, in contrast to the implicit self (or this) in some other object-oriented programming languages (e.g., C++, Java, C).
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