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What is Python?

Python is a popular programming language. It was created in 1991 by Guido van Rossum.

It is used for:

  • web development (server-side),
  • software development,
  • mathematics,
  • system scripting.

What can Python do?

  • Python can be used on a server to create web applications.
  • Python can be used alongside software to create workflows.
  • Python can connect to database systems. It can also read and modify files.
  • Python can be used to handle big data and perform complex mathematics.
  • Python can be used for rapid prototyping, or for production-ready software development.

Why Python?

  • Python works on different platforms (Windows, Mac, Linux, Raspberry Pi, etc).
  • Python has a simple syntax similar to the English language.
  • Python has syntax that allows developers to write programs with fewer lines than some other programming languages.
  • Python runs on an interpreter system, meaning that code can be executed as soon as it is written. This means that prototyping can be very quick.
  • Python can be treated in a procedural way, an object-orientated way or a functional way.

Good to know

  • The most recent major version of Python is Python 3, which we shall be using in this tutorial. However, Python 2, although not being updated with anything other than security updates, is still quite popular.
  • In this tutorial Python will be written in a text editor. It is possible to write Python in an Integrated Development Environment, such as Thonny, Pycharm, Netbeans or Eclipse which are particularly useful when managing larger collections of Python files.

Python Syntax compared to other programming languages

  • Python was designed to for readability, and has some similarities to the English language with influence from mathematics.
  • Python uses new lines to complete a command, as opposed to other programming languages which often use semicolons or parentheses.
  • Python relies on indentation, using whitespace, to define scope; such as the scope of loops, functions and classes. Other programming languages often use curly-brackets for this purpose.

Specify a Variable Type

There may be times when you want to specify a type on to a variable. This can be done with casting. Python is an object-orientated language, and as such it uses classes to define data types, including its primitive types.

Casting in python is therefore done using constructor functions:

  • int() – constructs an integer number from an integer literal, a float literal (by rounding down to the previous whole number), or a string literal (providing the string represents a whole number)
  • float() – constructs a float number from an integer literal, a float literal or a string literal (providing the string represents a float or an integer)
  • str() – constructs a string from a wide variety of data types, including strings, integer literals and float literals

Recursion

Python also accepts function recursion, which means a defined function can call itself.

Recursion is a common mathematical and programming concept. It means that a function calls itself. This has the benefit of meaning that you can loop through data to reach a result.

The developer should be very careful with recursion as it can be quite easy to slip into writing a function which never terminates, or one that uses excess amounts of memory or processor power. However, when written correctly recursion can be a very efficient and mathematically-elegant approach to programming.

In this example, tri_recursion() is a function that we have defined to call itself (“recurse”). We use the k variable as the data, which decrements (-1) every time we recurse. The recursion ends when the condition is not greater than 0 (i.e. when it is 0).

To a new developer it can take some time to work out how exactly this works, best way to find out is by testing and modifying it.

Python Numbers

There are three numeric types in Python:

  • int
  • float
  • complex

Variables of numeric types are created when you assign a value to them:

Example

x = 1    # int
y = 2.8  # float
z = 1j   # complex

Learn Python from scratch

Sign up for one of our Python programming courses to dive into programming and learn Python from scratch! Our courses will prepare you for jobs and careers connected with widely understood software development, which includes not only creating the code itself as a junior developer, but also computer systems design and software testing.

Completing our courses can be a stepping-stone to learning any other programming language, and to explore technologies using Python as a foundation (e.g., Django). Our introductory courses are distinguished by their affordability, friendliness, and openness to the student. They all start from the absolute basics, guiding you step by step to complex problems, making you a responsible software creator able to take different challenges in many position in the IT industry.

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